He asked Fronto for 'some particularly eloquent reading matter, something of your own, or Cato, or Cicero, or Sallust or Gracchus – or some poet, for I need distraction, especially in this kind of way, by reading something that will uplift and diffuse my pressing anxieties. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. In 161, Aurelius took control of the Roman Empire along with his brother Verus. Marcus Aurelius wrote the Meditations, his reflections in the middle of campaigning and administration. However, although he was granted the name Augustus and the title imperator , and was elected Pontifex Maximus , Marcus appears to have taken these positions with some hesitation, having to be compelled to do so. Marcus probably would have opted for travel and further education instead. Lucius addressed the assembled troops, which then acclaimed the pair as imperatores. [32] His father probably died in 124, when Marcus was three years old during his praetorship. His birth name was Marcus Annius Verus, after his father of the same name. [131] By 28 March 158, when Marcus replied, another of his children was dead. His health was so poor that, during a ceremony to mark his becoming heir to the throne, he was too weak to lift a large shield on his own. The emperors permitted free speech, evidenced by the fact that the comedy writer Marullus was able to criticize them without suffering retribution. The Death of Marcus Aurelius. Topics. Faustina's betrothal to Ceionia's brother Lucius Commodus would also have to be annulled. At the beginning of The Meditations, Marcus Aurelius spends a whole chapter carefully reminding himself of the most important things about the most important people in his life, his family and teachers. Since I became Caesar, I … Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was born in April 26, 121 AD, to a prominent family. He might have died in 152, the same year as Marcus's sister Cornificia. 662 likes . As the biographer wrote, 'No one missed the lenient ways of Pius'. The Antonine Plague broke out in 165 or 166 and devastated the population of the Roman Empire, causing the deaths of five million people. [149], Although Marcus showed no personal affection for Hadrian (significantly, he does not thank him in the first book of his Meditations), he presumably believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. [116][note 7] He was the man Fronto recognized as having 'wooed Marcus away' from oratory. He was consul in 154,[134] and was consul again with Marcus in 161. Pius was also childless and adopted both Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius, whose name changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). Maximus "the Spaniard" Decimus Meridius (144-192) was the commander of the Armies of the North and the Felix Legions under the Roman Empire. Meditations is perhaps the only document of its kind ever made. However, although he was granted the name Augustus and the title imperator , and was elected Pontifex Maximus , Marcus appears to have taken these positions with some hesitation, having to be compelled to do so. [160] Upon his accession he also devalued the Roman currency. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. He may not even have been crowned in Armenia; the ceremony may have taken place in Antioch, or even Ephesus. [296] The last named went so far as to call him "more philanthropic and philosophic" than Antoninus and Hadrian, and set him against the persecuting emperors Domitian and Nero to make the contrast bolder. Moreover, there was nothing specifically Stoic about this legal activity, and in one respect the age of Antoninus Pius and Marcus signalizes a retrogression in the relationship of law to society, for under them there either began or was made more explicit a distinction of classes in the criminal law—honestiores and humiliores—with two separate scales of punishments for crime, harsher and more degrading for the humiliores at every point. Marcus Aurelius. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 163, citing. Marcus Aurelius : Maximus, that is why it must be you. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. ', 'Dwell on the beauty of life. The answer, we learn, is, “For the glory of the Roman Empire, sire.” This scene appears early in the 2000 movie Gladiator, and though the star of the film may be Russell Crowe as Maximus, it is Richard Harris as the elderly Marcus Aurelius who steals the … His condition did not improve, and he abandoned the diet prescribed by his doctors, indulging himself in food and drink. [262] The condition on the northern frontier looked grave. The peace could not hold long; Lower Pannonia did not even have a legion. [285] Raoul McLaughlin writes that the travel of Roman subjects to the Han Chinese court in 166 may have started a new era of Roman–Far East trade. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Maximus: For the glory of the empire, sire. Then another: the girl alone. [166] On 31 August, she gave birth at Lanuvium to twins: T. Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Birley believes there is some truth in these considerations. Join Facebook to connect with Marcus Aurelius Maximus and others you may know. [81] In April 145, Marcus married Faustina, legally his sister, as had been planned since 138. Rome is to be a Republic again. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', pp. [65], Immediately after Hadrian's death, Antoninus approached Marcus and requested that his marriage arrangements be amended: Marcus's betrothal to Ceionia Fabia would be annulled, and he would be betrothed to Faustina, Antoninus's daughter, instead. His father, Marcus Annius Verus III was a politician and a nobleman. The war that followed (162–166) was nominally under the command of Verus, though its successful conclusion, with the overrunning of Armenia and Mesopotamia, was the work of subordinate generals, notably Gaius Avidius Cassius. For constructive statesmanship or the initiation of original trends in civil policy, Marcus had little time or energy to spare. [113] He disdained philosophy and philosophers and looked down on Marcus's sessions with Apollonius of Chalcedon and others in this circle. At his own insistence, however, his adoptive brother was made coemperor with him (and bore henceforth the name Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus). Answer: Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (AD 121—180) was a Roman emperor (161—180) and Stoic philosopher.He may be best known in pop culture as the father of the villainous emperor Commodus, the antagonist in the 2000 film Gladiator.He is known in other circles as the author of Meditations, a guide … Casaubon v. 8.16, uploaded to www.philaletheians.co.uk, 14 July 2013 Page 1 of 128 The meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Originally translated by Meric Casaubon About this edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was Emperor of Rome from 161 to his death, the last of the “Five Good Emperors.” He was nephew, son-in-law, and adoptive son of Antonius Pius. (McLynn, Marcus Aurelius) The fact that Marcus’ two sons were appointed Caesar did perhaps create a slight anomaly because the most likely scenario would be that Lucius would have outlived Marcus, as we’ve seen. [221] Lucius's biographer suggests ulterior motives: to restrain Lucius's debaucheries, to make him thrifty, to reform his morals by the terror of war, and to realize that he was an emperor. Marcus Aurelius, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 161 ce) Marcus Annius Verus, (born April 26, 121 ce, Rome [Italy]—died March 17, 180, Vindobona [Vienna, Austria] or Sirmium, Pannonia), Roman emperor (161–180 ce), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Upon his adoption by Antoninus as heir to the throne, he was known as Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar and… [74], As quaestor, Marcus would have had little real administrative work to do. There is no evidence that Lucius Verus had much of a following, so a ruthless rival could have easily disposed of him, though to leave him in being as anything less than emperor might have created a focus for disaffection. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age … Marcus’s claim to statesmanship has come under critical attack in numerous other ways—for example, in the matter of Christian persecution. It is most probable, however, that Marcus’s conscience impelled him to carry out loyally what he believed to have been the plan by which alone he himself had eventually reached the purple. [111] In any case, Marcus's formal education was now over. The campaign had lasted only three days. Venus Williams. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. He has symbolized the Golden Age of the Roman Empire for many generations in the West. [33][note 2] Though he can hardly have known his father, Marcus wrote in his Meditations that he had learnt 'modesty and manliness' from his memories of his father and the man's posthumous reputation. Marcus Aurelius, the byname is Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, born on 26 April 121 and died on 17 March 180. When Hadrian died, Antoninus assumed command. [90] He thought the Stoics' desire for apatheia was foolish: they would live a 'sluggish, enervated life', he said. Marcus Servilius Fabianus Maximus was shuffled from Lower Moesia to Upper Moesia when Marcus Iallius Bassus had joined Lucius in Antioch. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marcus-Aurelius-Roman-emperor, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Heritage History - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Commodus then strangles his father, makes himself emperor anyway, and tries to have Maximus murdered, setting up the plot for the rest of the film. [283] It is believed that the plague was smallpox. Facebook da a la gente el poder de compartir y … [233] Lucilla was accompanied by her mother Faustina and Lucius's uncle (his father's half-brother) M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus,[234] who was made comes Augusti, 'companion of the emperors'. Marco Aurelio (/ ɑː r i l i ə s / o / ɑː r i l j ə s / ; América : Marco Aurelio Augusto, 26 de abril de 121 - 17 de marzo 180) fue un emperador romano 161-180 y una filósofo estoico. She was the first of at least thirteen children (including two sets of twins) that Faustina would bear over the next twenty-three years. The boy did not survive long, as evidenced by coins from 156, only depicting the two girls. Marcus thanked the temple synod, 'even though this turned out otherwise'. However, it was also a 'harbinger of something much more ominous'. [118] He was older than Fronto and twenty years older than Marcus. [14] Marcus was raised in his parents' home on the Caelian Hill, an upscale area with few public buildings but many aristocratic villas. They were called Titus Aurelius Antoninus and Tiberius Aelius Aurelius. He believed Marcus was 'beginning to feel the wish to be eloquent once more, in spite of having for a time lost interest in eloquence'. The citizens of Seleucia, still largely Greek (the city had been commissioned and settled as a capital of the Seleucid Empire, one of Alexander the Great's successor kingdoms), opened its gates to the invaders. At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundation… Lucius took the title 'Medicus',[255] and the emperors were again hailed as imperatores, becoming 'imp. Watch the stars, and see yourself running with them. In 161 Syria was invaded by the Parthians, a major power to the east. Early in 138, however, Commodus died, and later, after the death of Hadrian, the engagement was annulled. Marcus and Verus fought the Germans off with success, but in 169 Verus died suddenly, and doubtless naturally, of a stroke. At some time between 155 and 161, probably soon after 155, Marcus's mother Domitia Lucilla died. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, and he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. Let us hope for the last time. Marcus goes on to request the senate desist from earlier courses of Christian persecution by Rome.[302]. If I happen to call him an uneducated little Greek it will not mean war to the death'. [286], Marcus died at the age of 58 on 17 March 180 due to unknown causes in near military quarters near the city of Sirmium in Pannonia (modern Sremska Mitrovica). [123] The first mention of Domitia in Marcus's letters reveals her as a sickly infant. Marcus Aurelius - Marcus Aurelius - The Meditations: A more intimate contact with the thoughts pursued by Marcus during the troubling involvements of his reign, though not what would have been historically most valuable, his day-to-day political thoughts, can be acquired by reading the Meditations. Dio is vital for the military history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices and strong opposition to imperial expansion obscure his perspective. [54][note 4], On 24 January 138, Hadrian selected Aurelius Antoninus, the husband of Marcus's aunt Faustina the Elder, as his new successor. This was a historical moment for Rome because, for the first time, it had two … Marcus thus was marked out as a future joint emperor at the age of just under 17, though, as it turned out, he was not to succeed until his 40th year. [215] Marcus Aurelius put on Fronto's voice to chastise himself: ''Much good has my advice done you', you will say!' [191], On his deathbed, Antoninus spoke of nothing but the state and the foreign kings who had wronged him. What I was hoping for then, I have now. When Marcus was an old man, exhausted not only by age but also by labors and cares, he suffered a serious illness while visiting the Pannonians. He led a Twelve Year Campaign in Germania, and his legions there were commanded by the Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius. In 136 the emperor Hadrian (reigned 117–138) inexplicably announced as his eventual successor a certain Lucius Ceionius Commodus (henceforth L. Aelius Caesar), and in that same year young Marcus was engaged to Ceionia Fabia, the daughter of Commodus. During his reign, the Rhine and Danube frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes such as the Goths, Alamanni, Longiones, Franks, Burgundians, and Vandals. Marcus Aurelius came from a prominent Roman family. My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius. );[71] direct evidence for membership, however, is available only for the Arval Brethren. [37] Marcus thanks his grandfather for teaching him 'good character and avoidance of bad temper'. His father, Marcus Annius Verus III was a politician and a nobleman. Hadrian then adopted Titus Aurelius Antoninus (the husband of Marcus’s aunt) to succeed him as the emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), arranging that Antoninus should adopt as his sons two young men—one the son of Commodus and the other Marcus, whose name was then changed to Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus. Marcus Aurelius died on 17th March 180 AD. He would not mention Herodes at all in his Meditations, in spite of the fact that they would come into contact many times over the following decades. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Lower Moesia was filled by Pontius Laelianus's son. [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. Together they had at least 12 children, including Commodus, Marcus’s successor.

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